大眾攝影

三影堂:行望山河——張克純作品展

2020-4-30 GF

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主辦:三影堂攝影藝術中心

策展人:蔡萌

開幕:2020年4月10日

展期:2020年4月10日 – 2020年6月28日(周一閉館)

地點:三影堂廈門攝影藝術中心(福建省廈門市集美區杏林灣營運中心2號樓301)

《溪山行旅》是世所公認的范寬真跡。在這幅北宋山水巨制里,大山堂堂,赫然當陽,一派宋代山水的寒氣、仙氣與浩然之氣。畫中一縱行旅從山下樹叢穿過,其人物與山川的比例關系,曾深刻地影響了張克純的攝影畫面。但這,只是他攝影創作的一個表象。

最近十年,中國當代攝影領域有兩個突出現象:一是“景觀攝影”廣泛出現,二是攝影“川軍”雄起。而張克純正處在這兩個坐標系的交叉點上?!熬坝^攝影”本人有多篇文章探討,這里不再贅述。所謂“川軍”,便是圍繞成都這個地處中國西南,兼具歷史感、文化感和舒適性的現代都市工作、生活的一批青年攝影師,他們以摧枯拉朽般的勢力,頻頻斬獲國內外的重要攝影獎項;并且通過自我組織,策劃了“縱目攝影雙年展”,并積極參與、介入公共社會事件。在新時期,他們以一種四川人獨有的“抱團”特點,形成自發秩序,并續寫著中國當代攝影發展進程中的新“群體現象”,進而成為中國當代攝影中一道獨特景觀。作為一名“川軍”驍將,張克純的攝影早已蜚聲國際。其照片里那些沉浸在迷霧中的人工景觀,不僅呈現出一種空間上的平面感和畫面的整體感,而且一如它曾經在印象派中廣泛出現過的那樣,浮現著一種雅致的色彩;他觀察的那些以點景式出場的人物(有很多時候出現張克純本人),他們或是在工 作、在觀光游覽、在無聊中發呆,或是沉浸在某種“自我”的狀態里;這種觀看的套層結構,或許正如王國維所言:“有我之境,以我觀物,故物皆著我之色彩”。

在無數次的訪談中,張克純提到張承志的《北方的河》是促使他出發的原始動力。這部寫于上世紀八十年代的中篇小說,寄托著克純父輩的那一代剛從“文革”中走出的青年人,懷揣個人理想、勇敢面對現實,從滿信心地奔向未來的浪漫情懷?;蛟S是它激起了一個從小生長在西南巴蜀大山里的青年,對北方平原與河流的想象與期待?!侗狈降暮印非『脴嫵蓮埧思內松壽E轉折期,他與所處境遇的一個隱喻關系。

2008年以來的中國以前所未有的發展速度一躍成為世界第二大經濟體。生活在這個大歷史中,張克純身上所具有的歷史感,表現出他不僅希望成為歷史的親歷者與見證者,更希望成為這一歷史的穿越者。帶著這份期待,克純以一種淡然、冷靜與沉著的視角出發,憑借一種韌性和執著,他穿越山川與河流、鄉野與城市,去觀察這個國家;構筑出一種深沉、優雅的圖像結構和虛幻、悠遠的壯麗之美。而性格中的安靜、寡言在照片中的投射,也成為克純作品能從同代人中跳出,展現其精神力量與境界的另一特質。隨著觀看的不斷深入,在克純看來,如何在一個全球化格局中,找到一種中國景觀,或者景觀攝影中的中國性,似乎更為重要。簡單地說,這種“中國景觀中的中國性”,一方面來自近二十年來城市化運動帶來的現實空間的荒誕性與惡俗(BAD)的爆炸力度;另一方面來自于一種本土藝術家從自身傳統美學經驗中尋找視覺資源和審美特點的自覺。與其說張克純始終在處理作品與現實之間的關系,不如說,他是在一種超越這片“今不如昔”的每一寸山河中尋找并重建自己心中的理想圖景。更重要的是,在這種“大游歷”過程中所獲取的信息量為他源源不斷地提供著無法從書本中獲取的養分,也給他提供了反思的機會,去反思其自身所在的文化場域與西方文化結構之間的關系。正所謂“行走于世,望天下路”,在行走中克純讓自己學會學習,看前人走過的來路,三思而行,走出屬于自己的出路,這既是張克純的“行望”,同時也透露出作為80’后的這代人對自身處境作出的一種自我反思。在冷靜的思考與守望里,在持續不斷地行走與凝望中,張克純準確地找到了被拍目標和內在驅動力的一致性,并不斷能夠從作品本身獲得樂趣與快感。于是,這些具有指標意義的特質,便構成了驅使他攝影創作的背后的核心動力源。

讓我們再回到北宋,回到《溪山行旅》。范中立通過處理人物與巨大空間的尺度關系,追求一種人對大自然的敬畏,在這種主觀的“造境”基礎上營造出歐洲中世紀以來教堂空間所具有的神性場域——神堂——神的居所。顯然,張克純的照片不是在探討“神性”,他是在嘗試著另一種“造境”——在現實的景觀現場中尋找那些符合其靈魂和內心深處的荒誕圖景。于是,在他的照片中我看到了古典的“神性”的缺席,和某種意義上的“中國性”與“個人性”經驗的出場。

文/蔡萌

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關于藝術家

張克純

1980年生于中國四川, 現生活、工作于成都。他曾獲得2008年美國國家地理攝影獎,2012年三影堂攝影獎提名,2012年及2013年索尼攝影獎提名,2014年法國匯豐銀行攝影獎提名,2014年連州國際攝影節年度評委會特別獎,2014年美國DAYLIHGT攝影獎,2014年法國阿爾勒攝影節發現獎,2015-法國Talents Contemporains當代藝術獎;2019金熊貓藝術獎。他的作品在美國,法國,英國,德國等20多個國家和地區得到展出。作品已經被德國國家博物館;巴爾的摩藝術博物館;中央美院美術館;美國威廉姆斯美術館;卡蒂斯特基金會;施耐德基金會等多家國際知名的博物館以及個人收藏家收藏。

關于策展人

蔡萌

美術學博士,中央美術學院美術館學術部副主任,副研究員,并兼任《大學與美術館》副主編。曾供職于中國藝術研究院(2006—2008)和廣東美術館 (2009—2010)。

主要策展項目

“第三屆廣州國際攝影雙年展”(2009)

“首屆CAFAM未來展”(2012)

“首屆北京國際攝影雙年展”(2013)

“中國當代攝影2009-2014”(2014)

“第二屆CAFAM未來展”(2015)

“第二屆北京國際攝影雙年展”(2015)

“羅杰·拜倫:荒誕劇場”(2016)

《向沙漠抽水的人》Zhang Kechun, Man Pumping in the Desert,? 2011

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《在江中的石頭上》Stone in the middle of river, 2011

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《煤廠里的佛像》 Zhang Kechun, A Buddha Head In a Coalfield, 2011?

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《在廢棄的橋墩下》Zhang Kechun, Under the abandoned pier, 2011

《河邊捕魚的人》Zhang Kechun, People Fishing by the River, Shanxi

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《在游泳池邊集合的士兵》Zhang Kechun, Soldiers gathered by the pool, 2014

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“Where the River Bends” Zhang Kechun Solo Exhibition

Organizer: Three Shadows Xiamen Photography Art Centre

Artist: Zhang Kechun

Curator: Cai Meng

Opening: April 10th, 2020, 15:00

Duration: 9:30 - 17:30, April 25th – June 28th, 2020 (Closed on Mondays)

Location: Three Shadows Xiamen Photography Art Centre

(No. 301, Building 2, Xinglinwan Business Center, Jimei District, Xiamen)

Travelers among the Mountains and Streams is widely considered to be an authentic work by Fan Kuan. The dignified mountains dominate this large Northern Song painting, which has the cool, other-worldly, and lofty spirit of Song-era landscapes. A group of travelers moves through the forest at the base of the mountain, and the proportional relationships between the figures and the landscape have deeply influenced Zhang Kechun’s photographs. However, this is just one element in his photography.

In the last ten years, there have been two notable phenomena in Chinese contemporary photography: one is the spread of landscape photography (jingguan sheying) and the second is the rise of photography’s “Sichuan army.” Zhang Kechun lies at the intersection of these two phenomena. Many essays have explored this mode of landscape photography, so I won’t add to the discussion here. The “Sichuan army” is a group of young photographers who live and work in modern cities with history, culture, and comfort, located in China’s southwest, centered on Chengdu. A disruptive force, they have repeatedly won important photography prizes both in China and abroad. In organizing and curating the Zong Mu Photography Biennial Exhibition, they have actively participated and intervened in public social events. In the new era, people from Sichuan have demonstrated a unique ability to stick together, which has shaped a new order; this new group in the development of Chinese contemporary photography has created a unique landscape in the field. A general in the “Sichuan army,” Zhang achieved international fame early. In his pictures, the manmade landscapes immersed in haze highlight the two-dimensional qualities of the space and the three-dimensional qualities of the imagery, but they also have a refined sensibility that was once a mainstay of Impressionism. He observes figures (many times they are Zhang himself) who appear in scenic spots. They may be working, looking at exhibitions, staring off into space, or immersed in their own thoughts. This layered structure of looking may be as? Wang Guowei wrote: “In a realm with the self, seeing objects through the self gives the objects my sensibility.”

In numerous interviews, Zhang Kechun has mentioned that Zhang Chengzhi’s Rivers of the North ?provided the original motivation for his work. The book, written in the 1980s, conveyed the personal ideals, the confident confrontation of reality, and the romantic idea of assertively rushing into the future held by the generation of Zhang Kechun’s parents, young people who had just emerged from the Cultural Revolution. Perhaps this inspired a young man who grew up in the mountains of the southwest, giving him a vision and longing for northern plains and rivers. Rivers of the North was a turning point in Zhang Kechun’s life, a metaphor for his relationship with his own circumstances.

Since 2008, China has made unprecedented leaps in development, becoming the world’s second-largest economy. Living in this grand moment in history, Zhang Kechun has a sense of history; he hopes to become someone who personally experiences and witnesses it, and he wants to be embedded in history. With this hope, Zhang begins from an indifferent, cool, and calm perspective. With toughness and persistence, he has traveled the mountains and rivers, the countryside and the city, observing his country and constructing deep and graceful pictorial structures and illusory, distant beauty. His peaceful, taciturn personality is reflected in his pictures, which is also what allows Zhang to stand out from other artists of his generation. He presents another side to his spiritual power. As we look deeper, finding a Chinese landscape or Chinese-ness in landscape photography is almost more important for Zhang Kechun in a global context. Simply put, the Chinese-ness of Chinese landscapes comes from the absurdity of real spaces and the explosive force of evil that have arisen in nearly twenty years of urbanization. On the other hand, this trait comes from a local artist discovering an awareness of visual resources and aesthetic traits from his own experiences of tradition. Zhang Kechun has always managed the relationship between his works and reality, but it might be better to say that he found and reconstructed an ideal vision in his heart as he traversed every inch of the deteriorating landscape. More importantly, the information he obtained on this grand journey has provided him with inspiration that could not be found in books. This also gave him the opportunity to reflect on the relationship between the cultural context in which he found himself and Western cultural structures. He was “traveling in the world and looking at the road ahead.” In his travels, Zhang had to learn by looking at the roads that people had walked previously. He looked before he leapt and chose his own way out. This is Zhang Kechun’s way of traveling and enjoying, but it also reveals his reflections on the predicament of the generation born after 1980. With calm consideration and vigilance and with continued traveling and looking, Zhang Kechun has found a clear consistency between the objects he photographs and his internal motivations, and he has always taken pleasure in the works themselves. Therefore, these notable qualities are the core motive force behind his photography.

Let us return to the Northern Song and to Travelers among the Mountains and Streams. Through the proportional relationships between the figures and massive spaces, Fan Kuan pursued the representation of humanity’s awe in the face of nature. With the subjective creation of a realm, he molded a spiritual world that had been found in European churches since the Middle Ages—a place for the spirit to reside. Of course, Zhang Kechun’s pictures do not explore spirituality, but he attempts to create another realm, finding absurd images in real landscapes that resonate with the depths of his soul. Therefore, his images reflect the absence of classical spirituality and the presentation of his experiences with “Chinese-ness” and personality.

Text/Cai Meng

About the Artist

Zhang Kechun

1980 born in Sichuan, China.?Lives and works in Chengdu, China.?He was awarded 2008 National Geographic Photography Award, 2012 Three Shadows Photography Award nomination, 2012 and 2013 Sony Photography Award nominations, 2014 HSBC Bank Photography Award nomination, and 2014 Lianzhou International Photography Festival Annual Jury Special. Award, 2014 USA DAYLIHGT Photography Award, 2014 Arles Photography Festival Discovery Award, 2015-France Talents Contemporains Contemporary Art Award; 2019 Golden Panda Art Award. His works have been exhibited in more than 20 countries and regions including the United States, France, Britain, and Germany. His works have been collected by the German National Museum; the Baltimore Museum of Art; the Central Academy of Fine Arts; the Williams Museum of America; the Cattister Foundation; the Schneider Foundation and many internationally renowned museums and personal collectors.



About the?Curator

Cai Meng

Doctor of Fine Arts, deputy director of the academic department of the Central Academy of Fine Art Museum, associate researcher, and concurrently the deputy editor of the University and Art Museum. He?has worked for the Chinese National Academy of Arts (2006-2008) and the Guangdong Museum of Art (2009-2010).

Main Curation projects

Third Guangzhou International photography Biennial (2009)

The First CAFAM Future exhibition (2012)

1st Beijing Photo Biennial (2013)

China Contemporary Photography: 2009-2014 (2014)

2nd? CAFAM Future exhibition (2015)

2nd Beijing Photo Biennial (2015)

Roger Ballen:Theater of the Absurd (2016)

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